Maternal Physiology Essay


Mother's Physiology

Michael C. Gordon

Body Water Metabolism 


Osmoregulation  43

Salt Metabolism  43

Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System  43

Atrial and Brain Natriuretic Peptide  44

Cardiovascular System 


Heart  44

Heart Output  45

Arterial Stress and Systemic

Vascular Resistance  46

Venous Pressure  forty seven

Central Hemodynamic Assessment  forty seven

Normal Alterations That Simulate Heart

Disease  47

A result of Labor as well as the Immediate

Puerperium  48

Respiratory system System 


Upper Respiratory system Tract  49

Mechanical Changes  49

Chest Volume and Pulmonary Function  49

Gas Exchange  60

Sleep  51

Hematologic Changes 

Urinary System 


fifty four

Anatomic Changes  54

Renal Hemodynamics  fifty four

Renal Tube Function/Excretion  

of Nutrients  55

Alimentary Tract 

Appetite  56


Adrenocorticotropic Hormone

Arginine Vasopressin

Blood Urea Nitrogen

Brain Natriuretic Peptide


Cardiac Outcome

Colloidal Oncotic Pressure

Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone

Pressured Expiratory Quantity in

one particular Second

Efficient Residual Capability

Glomerular Purification Rate

Individual Chorionic Gonadotropin

Human Parias Lactogen

Indicate Arterial Pressure

Parathyroid Body hormone

Pulmonary Capillary Wedge


Rapid Vision Movement



Cerebrovascular accident Volume

Systemic Vascular Amount of resistance

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone

Thyroxine-Binding Globulin

Total Thyroxine

Total Triiodothyronine


Sang Volume and Red Blood Cell

Mass  51

Iron Metabolism in Pregnancy  52

Platelets  53

Leukocytes  53

Coagulation System  54


























Mouth  56

Stomach  56

Intestines  57

Gallbladder  57

Liver  57

Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy  57



Calcium Metabolism  58

Skeletal and Postural Changes  fifty nine

Endocrine Changes 

Thyroid  59

Adrenal Glands  61

Pituitary Gland  62


Pancreatic and Gasoline Metabolism 

Glucose  62

Protein and Fats/Lipids  62



sixty two

Major different types in mother's anatomy, physiology, and

metabolism are required to get a successful being pregnant. Hormonal alterations, initiated just before conception, considerably alter mother's physiology and persist through both pregnant state and the initial postpartum period. Although these adaptations are profound and affect just about any organ

system, women come back to the nongravid state with minimal

residual changes. you A full understanding of physiologic

improvements is necessary to differentiate among normal alternations and those that are abnormal. This kind of chapter details maternal adaptations in being pregnant and gives certain

examples of that they may have an effect on care. Finally, although

women may wheel of repeated reassurance that " it really is simply regular and of zero concern, ” a complete understanding

of physiologic changes allows each obstetrician to provide

a much more thorough description for numerous changes and


Many of the changes to routine laboratory ideals caused

simply by pregnancy will be described in the following textual content. For a

extensive review of normal reference amounts for

common laboratory tests by trimester, the reader is inspired to refer to Appendix A2.


The increase in total physique water of 6. five to 8. 5 L by the end of gestation represents one of the most significant adap­

tations of pregnancy. The water content material of the baby, placenta, and amniotic liquid at term accounts for about 3. 5 L. Additional water is accounted for by growth of the

Chapter 3 Mother's Physiology  43


a hundred and forty

PNa (mmol/L)

maternal blood vessels volume by simply 1500 to 1600 mL, sang volume

by simply 1200 to 1300 mL, and red blood cells by 300 to 400 mL. The rest is related to extravascular fluid, intracellular smooth in the uterus and chest, and expanded adipose tissues. As a result, pregnancy is a current condition of...

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Sci thirty four: 67, 1997.

2 . Lindheimer M, Davison J: Osmoregulation, the release of arginine vasopressin and its metabolism while pregnant. Eur L Endocrinol 132: 133, 1995.

5. Schobel H: Pregnancy-induced alterations in renal function. Kidney

Bloodstream Press Res 21: 276, 1998.

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following birth. Clin Cardiol 32: E60, 2009.

10. Bhagwat A, Engel L: Heart disease and pregnancy. Cardiol Clin

13: 163, 1995.

11. Eghbali M, Wang Y, Tauro L, ain al: Cardiovascular system hypertrophy while pregnant: a better operating heart. Tendencies Cardiovascul Mediterranean 16: 285,


Gynecol 18: 460, 2001.

in twin pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 102: 806, 2003.

Obstet Gynecol thirty-two: 849, 08.

Sci 116: 599, 2009.

the following birth period. Are J Obstet Gynecol 185: 822, 2001.

19. vehicle Oppen A, Stigter Ur, Bruinse L: Cardiac output in normal pregnancy: a vital review. Obstet Gynecol 87: 310, mil novecentos e noventa e seis.

256: H1061, 1989.

In Hurst JN: The Heart, 6th male impotence. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1985,

p 1383.

twenty-three. Kerr M: The mechanised effects of the gravid womb in late being pregnant. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw 72: 513, 1965.

24. Lanni S, Tillinghast J, Silver precious metal H: Hemodynamic changes and baroreflex gain in the supine hypotensive syndrome. Am J Obstet

Gynecol 187: 1636, 2002.

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Br M Obstet Gynaecol 103: 862, 1996.

preeclampsia. Lancet one particular: 1245, 1985.

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Revolution Respir Dis 137: 668, 1988.


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